A non-partisan, neutral perspective supporting diversity in the color of water

Saturday, December 2, 2017

The Business of Water

The Business of Water is getting increased attention, from the many water-focused Exchange Traded Funds (ETF) with double-digit returns, conferences with catchy titles, to courses with the same catchy titles offered at both Georgetown University and Oregon State University (OSU). The Business of Water course at OSU uses this book as a textbook.

A concept note for a *waterMBA* was for a joint degree program between the Water Resources Graduate Program and College of Business (COB) at OSU, but the effort ran out of steam with the appointment of a new COB dean. An opportunity lost to others.

So, what is news in the Business of Water and why all of the attention? How about "The Flow Meters Market Is Estimated At USD 6.81 Billion In 2017 And Is Projected To Reach USD 9.30 Billion By 2022"?

And the connection to greywater?

Asia Pacific is projected to lead the flow meters market during the forecast period. On the basis of region, the flow meters market has been segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, South America, and the Middle East & Africa. Asia Pacific is projected to lead the flow meters market during the forecast period. The growth can be attributed to the increasing demand for water & waste water treatment (which includes greywater recycling, purge treatment, biogas measurement, and effluent treatment) due to the rising demand from the irrigation industry.

Key companies supplying flow meters are:

  • Honeywell (US)
  • Siemens (Germany)
  • Emerson Electric Co. (US)
  • ABB Ltd. (Switzerland)
  • Yokogawa Electric (Japan)
  • Azbil (Japan)
  • Badger Meter (US)
  • Krohne Messtechnik (Germany)
  • Schneider Electric (France)
  • Endress Hauser (Switzerland)
  • Litre Meter (UK)
  • Sierra Instruments (US)
  • SICK AG (US)
  • Seametrics (US)
  • EQUFLOW (Netherlands)

Kudos to the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater for capitalizing on home-grown talent by recruiting the CEO of Badger Meter to their Institute for Water Business Advisory Board.

So, don't squander this bullish market. Invest in water.
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“Don't cry over the shots you've missed; 
weep over the ones you've not taken at all. 
The bitterest regrets are for things planned but left undone!” 

Wednesday, November 22, 2017

Greywater Gets Buoyed

This article in Fast Company is about a great greywater gadget - the Buoy..."designed to help homeowners better understand where their water goes." 

Buoy attaches to a home water line and connects to Wi-Fi. As water flows through pipes, the system uses machine-learning algorithms to identify whether the water is going to a shower or sprinkler or washing machine. If there’s a leak, an app connected to the system gives the homeowner the option to shut off water remotely and call a plumber. If the system identifies that a large amount of water goes to a certain activity–such as watering a lawn–it can also help someone identify where to make strategic changes."

As pressure increases on traditional sources of water, and aquifers or reservoirs are drained, Waters envisions that Buoy could help enable a shift to new technology. Devices that harvest water from the air, for example, or greywater systems, are available now–but to use them, people need more data than a simple water bill provides.

“Let’s say I wanted to buy greywater for my house,” says Waters. “Just looking at my water bill isn’t enough. You have to know how much outdoor watering [you do] versus how much do you generate with showers and washing machines that could be used as greywater.

Buoy is expensive: The technology, along with installation from a licensed plumber and a lifetime subscription to the service, costs $799. 
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Thursday, November 16, 2017

Water Clubs

Meeting the *thirst* for water knowledge using a club? You bet! Check out this blog posting on a groundwater club in Kenya.

Maji  (water ​in Swahili) ​clubs at 3 ​secondary ​schools within ​the Gro for ​GooD study area ​are proving to ​be an effective ​outreach ​mechanism for ​the groundwater ​research ​project. Almost ​100 students ​are involved ​and over half ​of them are ​girls. ​

The focus is ​on learning ​through ​activities, ​which have ​included hands-​on sessions ​about ​groundwater ​recharge, ​storage and ​pollution ​using ​aquifer kits; ​practical ​experiments ​using ​water quality ​tests to ​demonstrate ​simple water ​filters and ​safe water ​storage; ​installing and ​gathering data ​from rain ​gauges; and ​field trips to ​see industrial ​water use and ​borehole ​drilling. ​

There are many student groups at universities, such as the Hydrophiles, at Oregon State University where I work. But scaling this concept to secondary schools is even better. Why? Let's rely on the quote of the day to answer this question.
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“I am so ​eager to know ​how that water ​from the river ​may reach ​nearer where we ​can easily get ​it. Reason ​being that from ​our homes to ​the river is ​quite a long ​distance and it ​usually takes ​us almost a ​whole day ​looking for the ​water. Which is ​time wasting ​and also ​tiresome.”​ Jackline K. ​

Saturday, November 11, 2017

Great Greywater Dissertation

Another in a series of great greywater theses, student projects, etc. profiled by the RWC (use the handy search engine for more), introducing Environmental Implications of Greywater Irrigation within an Urban Development - a great dissertation from another of the many great greywater universities, Queensland University of Technology.


Increased water demands due to population growth, increased urbanisation and urban intensification especially in dry countries such as Australia, has led to increased adoption of various water reuse practices. Irrigation of greywater (all water discharged from the bathrooms, laundry and kitchen apart from toilet waste) is one potential means of easing water demands. Despite widespread adoption, there is limited knowledge of greywater reuse and the accumulation and potential impacts of the constituents of greywater (nutrients, major ions, metals and micro-pollutants) in soil, groundwater and surface water. This study compared four residential lots that had been irrigated with greywater for four years and adjacent non-irrigated lots that acted as controls to assess the sustainability of greywater irrigation. The irrigation volumes of greywater applied, the physicochemical water quality parameters and soil chemistry profiles were assessed for each lot. Assessments were made by comparing measured concentrations to national and international guidelines and determining whether organic micro-pollutants in irrigated greywater were transferred to shallow groundwater and an adjacent surface waterway. In assessing the sustainability of greywater irrigation, the data clearly showed benefits as the volume of water saved was 1.6 million litres of potable water from the four lots over four years (i.e., 100 000 L per household per year). However, the environmental sustainability of greywater irrigation from a potential contamination point of view differs depending on the water quality of the greywater.

Incorrect use and/or lack of understanding of how household products affect irrigated greywater can result in phosphorus posing a risk to the environment. Irrigated greywater from some lots displayed a  risk of phosphorus interacting with the surrounding environment where as some showed minimal impacts and thus demonstrated sustainability. Greywater also increased concentrations of some metals in irrigated soil and resulted in As, B, Cr and Cu exceeding soil quality guidelines after only four years of irrigation. Movement of metals from the irrigation areas resulted in metal concentrations in groundwater (Al, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) and surface water (Cu, Fe and Zn) that exceeded environmental  quality guidelines within four years. These results indicate the need to consider metals in greywater in order to minimise potential adverse environmental effects from greywater irrigation.

A total of 22 organic micro-pollutants were detected in greywater. Six of these (acesulfame, caffeine, DEET, paracetamol, salicylic acid and triclosan) were selected as potential tracers of greywater contamination. Three of these chemicals (acesulfame, caffeine, DEET) were detected in the groundwater, while salicylic acid was also detected in adjacent surface water. Caffeine and DEET in surface water were directly attributable to greywater irrigation. Thus the practice of greywater irrigation can act as a source of organic micro-pollutants to shallow groundwater and nearby surface water.

This research found greywater irrigation contributes substantially to surface water loads of caffeine, DEET, salicylic acid, SO42-, Al, B, Cu, P and N and indicates greywater irrigation can impact the aquatic environment. This research and holistic data set (organic micropollutants,nutrients, major cations and anions as well as metals and metalloids) as a result of irrigated greywater impacting three connected environment compartments (soil, groundwater and surface water). This data will be useful to validate and calibrate specific models and algorithms, allowing the modelling of catchment management scenarios for greywater land use and assessing the potential environmental impacts on aquatic environments.

This Doctoral dissertation is, to the authors’ best knowledge, the first to study the practice of sub-surface greywater irrigation in Australia and the potential impacts of its physicochemical properties, major ions, nutrients, metals, metalloids and organic micro-pollutant concentrations, loads and yields in three connected environmental compartments — soil, groundwater and surface water. It provides the first comprehensive assessment of the environmental fate of greywater constituents irrigated to land. 

The results clearly demonstrate that with knowledge, appropriate household product use and responsible use of greywater, that greywater irrigation can be a sustainable practice. However, if the treatment of greywater is not suitable for long-term irrigation, and the retention of greywater constituents within the soil sub-surface irrigation zone is not achieved, then environmental harm is likely to occur.
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I'm not writing a Ph.D. Dissertation. 
~ American journalist Bill O'Reilly